STAFFORDSHIRE BULL TERRIER
   
 

These notes are to guide you with the training of your new puppy. You have already bonded with your puppy. Please give it time to bond with you and to give it time to trust you. If he seems scared and afraid reassure it.

Keeping a dog is a skill; teaching a dog is a major skill, quite different from anything else you will ever learn; owning a dog requires care, effort and planning.
Your pup’s first sixty days will set the seal on his future. Neglect to teach him and train him, and you have wasted his life. Start to teach him, and you have laid the foundations of a long and rewarding partnership.

Character
Courageous, intelligent, tenacious, affectionate, calm, good with children. (Not good with other dogs as they were bred in the 1600’s by crossing the bulldog, the terrier and the ancestor of the white and coloured bull terrier to fight bulls and bears. It was a very cruel sport and when this was prohibited the dogs were used to fight one another.

Always remember that your dog will not tolerate another dog especially if it is of the same gender.

They are excellent with humans and children and very affectionate and friendly dogs.
They mature late in life and you will find that at about 2 years of age they will bark at strangers.

WHEN YOU BRING YOUR PUPPY HOME

When you bring your puppy home, put him in an open cardboard box with an opening in the front, well lined with a soft piece of blanket that can be washed. He may well mess or be carsick in panic. As far as he knows, he is being stolen, taken away from his mother and everything he knows, and dumped in your car, among smells that overwhelm him. Nothing is familiar. He will be in a state of total terror.

Reassure him, and talk to him soothingly; he is only a baby, and though he can do a great many things at this stage that human babies cannot, he is a tiny terrified creature going out by himself into a totally strange environment, without the comfort of his mother. (Imagine being picked up by a giant, whipped into a plane and dumped in the middle of a village the other side of the world, all within hours, with no one to tell you what is right to do and what is wrong, not knowing the words hunger or thirst, or that people will be kind and will not hurt you. That is how your puppy feels).

When you arrive home put him down on a newspaper or on the grass and wait with him until he has relieved himself.

Give him something to eat and play with him. Puppies need to go immediately after waking. Do not play with it until it has done its business. Your puppy will also have to go after it has eaten – again give it enough time to ‘look’ for a place to do its business.

I have always praised my dogs and use the word ‘piepie’. The dog then associated the business with the word and you can later in life tell it to go and do a ‘piepie’ and it will understand. I am always very serious until it has done his business.

Feeding
When you take the puppy from us at 8 weeks it will be weaned and will be able to eat on its own. Please ensure that the puppy always has enough food and fresh water available when you are leaving it behind for the day. Also ensure that it has a comfortable dry place to sleep. This might have to be shown to him a few times before he catches on.

Puppies need to be fed at least 4 or 5 times a day. Always give it a last feed at about 20h00 at night and something to drink. This will ensure that he sleeps well during the night. Have his feed for the morning ready as he will await it eagerly and will not be able to wait for it too long. Show him the bowl with the food and hold it as he will storm the bowl and maybe run it over.

He has been fed on pallets soaked in a little bit of water and beefy meat. Stick to this in the beginning and gradually change his diet if you so wish. Do this slowly to make him used to any changes. If he gets a runny stomach – give him a little bit of cooked chicken with rice. This will normally solve the problem.

When you puppy gets older and you give it a bone always go up to him and ask to look at the bone. This will teach him that you will give his bone back but it ensures that you are always able to look what it is eating. I have seen my children taking their bones and all the dog does is wait for it to be given back.

GENERAL TRAINING

Pulling and biting
Puppies at this stage will pull on anything, especially shoe laces, socks, pants etc. Firmly say ‘no’ and pull him away, giving him a very light tick on the nose, then immediately give him something else to pull or play with.

Biting – remember the bites are not so sore now, but as his teeth grow bigger and especially at about 4 months, with his new teeth, his bites can become very painful – always try to discourage him to bite your hands – again make sure that he has something else to play with – also give him a command like ‘gently’ or ‘eina’ if he bites to hard. I also say ‘klaar’ when the play gets to wild. This learns the puppy to stop when you want it to. You can resume play again a bit later.

Always use the same command for the same actions, as they will then learn very quickly. This means that everyone in the household must use the same commands if possible. The puppy will also start to recognise the tone of your voice when you are angry.

Puppies also like to be close to your face as this is what they are used to with their mother. Do not let them snap at your face in a playful manner – this must be stopped immediately and you must always be aware of this when you play and put your face close to his. Remember this is how he used to play with his mother.

Playthings

These can be anything, but remember when they are puppies – if they are allowed to play with a hose pipe or any other items i.e. shoes etc – they will think that it is OK to chew on these items when they are grown up. Never let your shoes lie around, especially when they are still young. They will chew them. Always try and give them a substitute, like empty plastic milk bottles, ropes, big bones, balls etc. I have always given my dog the empty toilet roll – this is great fun to demolish. Before I let my dog have it I call its name though the roll – it sounds different, and they love to play with this. You only have to clean up the pieces afterwards but it is fun to see them play with it.

Always remember that they need toys and you will have to play with him to make the toy interesting. A big bone will also keep your puppy busy for days on end. Remember to give this to him outdoors. If he manages to bring it inside take it outside and say “no, outside. It will take a while but he will eventually catch on that the bone has to stay outside. Do not let him eat the bone inside at all because the attempt to train him will be worthless. When he understands this you can give him a bone in the house and walk with him to the door saying ‘outside’ the whole time. He will then go outside - let him stay outside until he has finished eating the bone.

Discipline and punishment

Teach your puppy the right things even while it is a puppy – do not let the fact that he is small make you think that you will teach him when he is a bit bigger. You do not have to hit them when they are small but your tone of voice will indicate to them that it is wrong. Take your puppy away from the wrongdoing and distract its attention with something else. Also remember that they are small and everything is new to them. Do give them the opportunity to explore and taste the funny things in the garden etc.

In my years of experience with Staffies I have noticed that the best thing to do after scolding a dog is by “making friends” a bit later as they can sulk if you leave them to long before making up.

It’s human nature to chastise a dog for bad behaviour, unfortunately, dogs don’t necessarily understand that they are being reprimanded and simply interpret it as attention. This can result in the dog repeating the bad behaviour in a bid to receive more attention.

The way to stop this is to ignore what the dog had done wrong, take the dog away from the site of the incident and do something constructive with the dog. Ask the dog to sit and stay for instance, and then praise it for the good behaviour. This way the dog will focus on doing what you praised it for not the negative behaviour.

Play

I always clap my hands when playing with them. – I have noticed that when I did this with my dog that they are not so scared of fireworks. The dogs, that I used rolled-up newspaper on, as a means of discipline, where scared of fireworks – this can be a coincidence, but I think it had something to do with the fact that the noise when using the newspaper, is the same loud noise as from fireworks. The dog also associated the noise from the newspaper with something bad and scary, while the hand clapping noise, also loud, but because it was all fun and play made, the difference.

Staffies can be very destructive up to the age of 1½ to 2 years. It is best to look what you leave behind in the garden when you go to work i.e. garden furniture, hoses and sprinkler systems.

We have at one stage put chilli on our sprinkler system’s pipes, but to no avail we just had to wait until they grew out of eating the pipes.

Teeth

Their teeth are very strong and by about the 4th month their adult teeth erupt – this is especially a period that they need to get things to chew on. It is always wise to check their mouth during this time and remove any loose teeth that seem to be in the way of the adult tooth as they are coming out.

Some dogs like to pick up stones or chew on them. This must be discouraged as it can cause serious damage to their teeth enamel.

Crying at night

Make sure that the puppy is comfortable and warm at night. He must be able to get out of his bed onto the newspapers to do its business. Make sure that there is food and water available. If he cries, go and check if he is OK. If he cries without reason, try and ignore it - he will go back to sleep. Maybe you just have to direct him back into his bed. Do not let him cry to get you to come and see him every time. Leave him and he will eventually go to sleep.
Never play with the puppy at night – put it to bed, put the light off and leave him.

 

Going for walks

It is best to start putting a collar onto your dog’s neck at about 3 to 4 months. Leave the collar on for a few days, it will bother him in the beginning but leave it until he is used to it. The next step is to, in a playful manner let the dog walk beside you. You can say come, come and clap your hands. When he follows you, you can then start putting a lead onto the collar. Never pull him, if he does not want to come, bend down and call him and then try again. Give him time to get used to the fact that there is a lead. When he is used to the lead, keep it short so that he walk right next to your legs. Once he has mastered that you may give him a longer lead. Never let him pull you along.

Always talk to him continuously and say “Good boy/girl”

We have books to read, and newspapers and TV, but our dog only has last week’s news in his yard, so let him get out at least once a day to get the latest news round the lamp post. Let your dog interpret scents at his leisure. It is your dog’s walk. Your dog will be a more restful animal when he comes home.

When you walk your dog in the street, always be on the lookout for stray dogs. Never walk your dog without a lead as he may pick a fight with a dog behind a fence. If you are afraid of dogfights in the street, avoid streets where dogs might jump over fences, rather go to a park or open veldt. Never let your dog run loose, unless it is an area that is fenced in, as he might want to chase after birds and will forget all about you.

Always remember that Staffies are fighters and will pick a fight with any other dog they get too close to, so always be aware and avoid this situation.

If your dog is involved in a fight, never hit him, as this will only make him more aggressive. Never put your hands near to their mouths as you might get bitten as well. The best way is to throw water over them or try and grab their hind legs and lift them. If they have collars on you can turn the collar so that it strangles the dog, this will make him gasp for air and he will then leave the other dog, giving you time to pull him back. A dogfight is not a nice thing to experience and it is therefore very important to rather be aware and to avoid the situation.

UNDERSTANDING THE DOG’S WORLD

Hearing and smell
To understand a dog, we have to break out of our human way of thinking. Our dog has the same senses as we have, but developed in different ways. His life is almost certainly lived through his nose.

If you go out for a meal, when you come home, after greeting your dog, he will come and smell your breath. ‘Where has he been? What has he eaten?’ They know by your scent whether you have been near another dog, stroked a cat, or even visited a friend whose house they are familiar with.

Out on walks there are other types of scent. It is a world we cannot enter, but is to them as familiar and easy to read, as are these pages. We can never enter into the world of scent in their way. Few humans have even one-thousandth of the sense of smell that a dog has. To a young pup, brought into your house for the first time, the overwhelming smells must be terrifying. He does not know that the scent on the floor is just polish; he may perhaps identify it with some tremendous animal, something beyond his imagination. Only when he has been with you for some time will the smell take its place among the background of scents of his new home.

He will know how you and all your family smell. He will smell washing-up liquid on your hands, hand cream or tobacco; if you have a baby he will smell the baby on you.

His hearing is far more acute than ours, and operates in different frequency ranges. A dog has such sensitive hearing that he can pick out not only the make of your car from other cars, but detect the noises that make your car different from others of the identical model.

Every dog needs territory. In pet life, one substitute is to allow the dog to see clearly out onto the street “where it all happens”. But do not force him to hold his head sideways to peer squint-eyed with one eye through a small aperture. Let him watch what is going on through jackal fencing, or a wrought-iron gate, or a clear hole made in a wooden gate, with wire if necessary to prevent him from climbing through.

I am always being told a dog is ‘lucky’ because he has a ‘nice big yard in which to run around”. Dogs do not go jogging like people – they must be motivated to urn. If we have a choice between a TV set the size of a garage door but which is switched off, and a tiny one, which is operating, we are not going to watch the big one, but the one that has the action. Thus, a dog in a tiny front garden with a view, even if it is tied up is actually far happier than a dog in a large walled-in back yard. The life of human beings is enhanced by the variety of shopping, watching TV, or using the telephone. We tend to assume our dog is fine if it has the run of a garden. But to him it is like watching the same movie a hundred times over – same complaint in humans is the ‘housewife syndrome’. Dogs in a slum area are often far better off than the over-privileged dog, safe behind walled-in gardens, waiting for his owners to return from work.

We can substitute a dog’s territory by letting him have a daily walk, and getting involved in the ‘street politics’ of sound and smell.

In the wild, the dog is a member of a pack. In domesticated life, the substitute for the pack is allowed a dog to enjoy our company for most of the day. When we go to work and leave our dog alone, he should not and cannot simply be ‘put on ice’.

Access to the heart of the home is necessary if a dog is not to feel alone and cut off from his family. He will also learn much quicker if he has the people that he lives with around him all the time. We want our dog to protect our property and ourselves; we can at least give him quality of life in return, by bringing him into our home to live with us. My dogs sleep in the kitchen and the best thing for them is to come into our bedroom in the morning and be able to lie with us. I put a special blanket on the bed first. They quickly catch on that if the blanket is on the bed they may get on. If the blanket is not on I tell them to get off and wait till I have put the blanket on.

When a man is pensioned off early, he usually takes up a hobby – such as gardening. Dogs are pensioned off early and they, too, take up a hobby – such as gardening. The most exciting thing he can do is dig a hole, and he gets clouted for that! Let the dog also have some fun. Remember they do grow out of digging holes after a while. I have always ignored it and believe the more fuss you make of it the more they will dig your grass up because it is a way of getting attention.

If the life of a dog (or person) lacks goals, risks, mental stimulation and variety, problems are sure to be created. He will wet on the carpet, and then wait for the action. The resulting chase and little smack on the backside make the whole routing very worthwhile. People with the same problem (non-striving situation) will display similar negative behaviour. If all attempts at livening up his environment are blocked, the dog breaks down or becomes a vegetable.

Do dogs think?

My experience would prompt me to state that a dog can think enough to know that when his owner’s car disappears from the driveway, it is now safe for him to curl up on the forbidden settee. But not enough to realise that when they come home it will be warm.

It is a debated and divided subject, but I would safely say that there are no dogs that do not think. Just people who are not sensitive enough to observe it.

My dogs have been trained to bring their bowl when I drink coffee. When they grow older I do not have to ask them to bring the bowl. They can think that when I drink coffee that they have to go and look for a bowl in order to get a bit of coffee.
They also go and find a ball and bring it to me if they would like to play. I strongly believe that they can think to a certain extend.

HOUSE TRAINING A NEW PUPPY

House training is the first essential in training any dog. I have house trained my puppies by 4 months of age. If it takes a lot longer than this, it can be the first real problem. Those who understand the mind if the dog will be successful, those who do not stick to a routine and who do not use the correct commands and confuse the puppy will struggle forever.

The tiny puppy cannot hold on all night. At first he has no control at all over this bladder or bowels. He is unaware that he can hold on, and has to be taught; he cannot be taught until his inside is capable of doing as you expect.

Some owners take little pups to bed with them; the pup begins to wriggle when he needs to go out, and can be taken outside. This is all very well if the owner is a light sleeper, sleeps alone and downstairs.

A puppy will normally relieve himself immediately when you put him on the grass. It helps to put him on the grass every hour or so.

If it stays inside for the first few weeks until it is bigger ensure that there is enough newspaper on the floor for it to do its business on.

Do not give your pup anything to eat or drink during the night. A good time is to give it its last food and drink at about 20h00 – take him outside at about 20h30 – play with him and put it in its box to sleep. Always take the pup outside before it has to settle to go to sleep. Remember to go outside with her and repeat a specific word that it will then associate with relieving itself.

If a puppy does make a mistake in the house, do not scold him if you find the mess after he has done it. He will not understand. He may not even associate it with himself. The time limitation ‘association’ is about forty seconds. The only way you can even correct him for any misdemeanour is to catch him in the act and scold him while he is misbehaving. It is quite pointless to smack him or to rub his nose in the mess. He has no idea of why you are doing it. All he will learn from that is that you have revolting habits.

Many people say, ‘He knows he has done wrong; you can tell it by his attitude when I speak to him.’ But they are misled. The dog will wag his tail if you praise him, and his tail will go down and he will look miserable if you say ‘bad dog’ in a scolding voice even if he has done nothing wrong. He will react to you body language.

If you catch your puppy in the middle of making a puddle, say no very firmly, lift him, and take him straight out. He will understand. Stay by him till he performs again, and then praise him. Then he knows it is OK outside, not OK inside. Scold him at the wrong moment, and you have an unhappy mixed-up puppy that may associate your displeasure not with emptying in the wrong place, but with emptying anywhere ever, at all. He hangs on till he bursts, which is sure to be in the wrong place. And then the pattern is set; he cannot understand what you want. With a bright dog, the penny may finally drop and he will learn to behave, but an upset dog or a very confused dog, may go months without ever understanding what is necessary; and remain impossible all their lives, because they have been so confused when babies

Each puppy has its own way of telling you what is about to happen. Some pups run in circles, sniffing the ground before deciding on the right place to go. You must then scoop him/her up immediately and put him/her outside. Also watch if it goes to the door and sniffs around; take it outside immediately.

Bitches may often leak a little in excitement; there is little you can do about this, as it is a form of nervous eagerness. Little pups often urinate when stroked (a signal of older dogs that they are puppies, so that they leave them alone and do not try to fight them). With some dogs, very much in awe of people, this may persist all through their lives. You simply have to learn to greet you dog outside if possible!

 

WHEN YOU ARRIVE HOME

Once you reach home, do not take him indoors. Take him at once to the place, which is going to serve as his own area for emptying himself, and put him down. Do not go away and leave him; you must know if he goes or not. The chances are that he will go very quickly, but even if it takes an hour, stay with him, watch him every second, and as soon as he has passed water, or emptied his bowels, praise him, Good Boy/Girl, clever boy/girl’. Use excited tones, as if he has just given you the Crown Jewels. Use some word of command, so that he associated the word with the act of emptying. Do not play with him. The second he has done all he needs to do give him lots of fuss and praise and take him indoors at once.

This will make him realise why he was outside. If you let him empty and then play with him for some minutes out of doors he will imagine he came out to play, and that the emptying just happened; it will lose its significance. If he comes in the second after he has performed, then he knows that was why he went outside. If you want him to play outside for a bit, you must still take him in, let him settle for about ten minutes, and then take him outside again. Do not let him stay outside too long, though, for the next occasion of emptying must be on an expedition for that, and not just an accident that occurred while you were out. Play with him in a different part of the garden.

Little puppies empty immediately they wake, immediately they are fed, and in between as well. If you can possibly spend the first week with him doing very little but watching and taking him inside as often as is necessary you will have laid the basis for successful and speedy training.

As you puppy grows up and you do not want him to do his business on the grass – always throw his droppings in one area of your garden. We throw the dogs droppings in our flowerbeds and after a while they catch on and go and do their business out of sight.

REWARD

A puppy is very eager to please and a great deal can be done with the voice, as praise means a lot to a dog.
A little puppy has to learn the difference between a praising voice and a scolding one. Pet you pup when you praise him.
Also give him a reward for doing things right. If he does not do it right, withhold the reward. Never withhold a dog’s food as punishment. I always use small pieces of dried wors for this purpose. Marie biscuits can also be used, give only small pieces at a time. I keep it in my pocket as we go for a training session and always reward for good behaviour. I never hit my dog for not understanding. I just keep on repeating what I want him to do and keep the training session short – not longer than 5 minutes a day.

The puppy that appears unable to learn and stays dirty all its life is usually like that because of human error. Few dogs are incapable of holding on when needed.

If you tap or scold your pup when he is actually emptying in the house, you have made a major step towards training him.

If you do not see it happen, and scold afterwards, you have made a major step backwards, and started to confuse the puppy.

It is very easy to start a wrong association. You can train him very fast if you are prepared to pen him, and take him out every hour and stay with him. Dogs house train quickly, if for a month you allow their routine, not yours, to be all-important, and make sure you do the right things.

A little effort and patience now is the foundation for much bigger achievements later, and a dog that house-trains quickly and easily soon learns to know that his good behaviour achieves rewards, while bad behaviour is unacceptable. Dogs, like children, need discipline, and to be taught right from wrong.

FURTHER TRAINING

A dog cannot speak your language, so you have to learn how to speak to him; this again is where many owners fail. They babble to their dogs, not realising that the dog does not understand human talk. Say ‘No’ in a big voice, and he will learn that, since it is often accompanied by unpleasant human actions. But tone is vital; ‘words alone do not covey meaning to a dog. Many owners do not praise in the right ‘cooing’ voice, a voice he will want to earn again sometimes they do not scold effectively either. I discipline my little puppies as their mother does; if they do wrong I growl. It may sound funny, but it is understood instantly.

If they try to bite my hand, I snatch it away before little teeth reach it, squeal, and suck an imaginary injury, saying ‘oof, oof, as if badly hurt, with little whining noises. Result; anxious puppy butts my hand and tries to lick it better; next time it is much more careful with those teeth.

If I want my pups to obey ‘Sit’ show them till they know what I want, saying the same word clearly every time. It is the same with ‘down’. ‘Stay ‘ has to be taught slowly; little pups do not want to sit still.

To get the dog to stay still you must teach it. First of all teach it to sit. Once it knows the word ’sit’ it will sit; if it will not, you have not taught it properly. Put it in a sit position, say ‘sit’ and then, when it is sitting, ‘Goooood Dooog’. Be please with it. You can even give him a reward. Let it walk and again hold the reward in front of him. Press his rear to the ground and when he sits, say Sit, give him the reward and say good boy/girl. If he snaps at the reward, he may be very hungry, feed him first and then start with the training and the reward. If he still snaps at the reward say No and pull the reward back immediately. Say take nicely and offer him the reward – if he takes it nicely again say Good Boy/Girl.

The next stage is to kneel beside it, and say ‘stay’. Repeat the word over and over if you like, but hold the dog; do not let it move, or it will think the word ‘stay’ means ‘move while I am sitting’. Praise it when it moves, and you have no chance at all to teaching it successfully.

Training takes time. The alphabet is taught one letter at a time, not twenty-six letters in a day; each letter is something on its own. So at first squat beside your dog, reassuring it. ‘Stay. Stay. There’s a good dog’ Then stand beside him, again making sure he cannot move, and praise again. Count five; and praise; release him and play with him. Put him back and teach again. ‘Stay’ count ten, and then twenty; and when you can stand by his side and count one hundred without him moving a fraction of an inch, go to the next step. Move one step away from him sideways and go back to counting five. If he stays, praise, do something else and a little later try again. Dogs learn slowly; they learn by repetition, over and over, over and over. Do not repeat immediately if the dog does right; do not repeat too often. But do repeat daily, and each time, with stays increase the time he stays where you have put him forever. Whilst training, once your take the lead off, your start again from very short stays.

We have fun with our dogs. We let them stay outside and go and hide inside. Then we call them and they come and look for us. If they find us we immediately have a reward available. This is great fun.

You can also teach them to find. Let them stay and hide some smarties in a room. Call him and point to the floor and say find. They enjoy this tremendously and the smarties on the floor are the reward.

The baby puppy can learn from the day he comes home; it is a shame to waste so good an opportunity, as what he learns in his first few weeks is with him for life. If you teach him, it is a good foundation; if he teaches himself, then you have trouble ahead, as he is not likely to hit on the right behaviour alone.

STOLEN DOGS

Puppies do get stolen, but most of the time they wander off after somebody, as they are very friendly when they are young. If kids give it attention through the fence or gate and walk off the puppy will try and run after them.

Please ensure that they are not near an open gate or a gate with even the smallest hole in for it to get out or for children to lure it through.

I have always kept my puppies at the back of my house until they are big enough.

SWIMMING POOLS

Staffordshire bull terriers can swim, but they do have to be trained first. Under no circumstances leave you Staffie alone by the swimming pool. It cannot swim on its own or like any other dog – Staffies sink.

If you do have a pool start when the puppy is about 4 months old by placing it in the pool (not throwing it in) – first at the step of the pool and gently guide the dog towards the deeper side. Let it turn and always ensure that it goes towards the steps in order to get out. After a few times put the dog in on the opposite side and let it swim towards the step. This exercise will have to be done several times over a period of about a month. When the dog always goes towards the steps no matter were you put it into the pool then only will it be save to leave the dog in the swimming pool area.

It must know were to get out of the pool – this is the most important lesson, as it cannot swim for a long distance before starting to sink.

Always repeat this exercise every summer when the water is not too cold for the dog to stay in practice.

JUMPING UP

Always greet your puppy by bending down to his level. If he jumps up to you, give him a gentle knock with your knee.

TEACHING YOUR PUPPY TO COME AND STAY INSIDE THE PROPERTY

This is the most important part of all your puppy's training, and it cannot start to soon. If your dog will come, no matter what is tempting him, you have the basis of control right through his life.

The very young puppy wants nothing more than to be as close to you as he can get. He has been launched into a world of giants, on his own, without his mother to protect him or his littermates to snuggle up against. He needs close contact. Most dogs will push against you, trying for maximum contact with you. Most baby puppies will climb into your arms the second you sit on the floor.
The game that a little puppy enjoys most is 'find'. He picks up your glove, or his own toy and, looking back enticingly, runs off; you (or the children) run after him. He is playing the eternal puppy game of being hunted. You or the children are the hunter. Any hunted animal knows he has to be very cunning, to dodge, backtrack, sidestep, and he will put all his small wits into eluding you. This is the game that all dog-like animals have played since time began.
If you are a pup, paws running behind you, or big human feet galloping after you, trigger the instinct to run away: 'Never, under any circumstances, let the chaser be the winner and catch up'.
The bitch teaches her pups thoroughly in the wild. She noses them down when danger approaches, so that they lie still and freeze. If one transgresses, she nips, hard, and snarls. There is no second chance for a baby, exploring on its own. She is no gentle mother, if the baby does wrong. When it is good, she cuddles and licks it, reassuring it all the time, giving it safety and giving it food. Her quick warning whine will bring it trotting to her immediately, and as soon as it reaches her, it suckles, if it has been frightened, it is licked, and it suckles. If it has trodden on a thorn and squeaked, its mother is there at once, licking the sore paw, and it suckles.
When you get your baby puppy, then it is already aware that comfort comes, or should come, instantly, from the one who feeds it and has become its substitute mother. As far as the pup can know, until he perhaps learns otherwise, he has only to come to you and everything in his baby world will be all right again. He trusts you as he trusted his mother. You have become his whole world, and while he is tiny, he wants to be with you constantly. His crying at night is a nuisance, but he is lonely and once he does settle happily at night, as he will if you are firm with him, then his greeting in the morning will be overwhelming. Then is the time to begin to teach that very important word 'come'.
In the morning scoop him up and take him outside. This is one of the critical times of the day, as he empties the second he wakes, and, if he has been clean all night, needs to go out very badly. If he is only 8 weeks old and hasn't been clean, do not scold him. Would you smack a three-week-old baby for having a wet nappy? Your little dog may seem much older, but as yet he cannot control bladder or bowels and it will be some time before he can. That "scolding voice will drive him away and make him distrust you so that he certainly will not want to come to you.
The first few weeks can make or break your chances of easy training. Call him in the most enticing voice you can dream up. He will want to come; you are his life now, and his security, and you are offering him what he needs more than anything in the world:
Comfort and food, just as his mother would. He will rush to you. Pet, fuss and cuddle your dog, and he has learned his first very important lesson, "My new mum wants me".
Now, if you run away from him, he is the hunter. You are prey. He will chase after you. If he's at a distance, call, and run away from him. He cannot bear you to leave him so he will rush to you; when he gets there, praise as much as you can.
If you have convinced him that coming to you is a real treat (never smack him for some reason he will not understand), then all you need say if he does something he shouldn't is 'No, puppy, come', run a little way backwards, and squat down. He can then do what he now regards as the trick you enjoy most: a headlong run towards your welcoming arms.
Always make sure your voice is crooning and happy; then that stern ‘No”, which you produce when he does do wrong, has far more impact. ‘She's cross; I want her to like me’. If you squat and call, he will rush to you. Forget whatever he's done wrong; unless you catch him in the act, he will have forgotten, as he lives for the moment. He expects you to want to love him, as he has done as you asked and come to you. He may have chewed up the baby's rubber duck five minutes before, but you called him and he came. If you say 'Bad dog' looking at the duck, he will back off. 'She doesn't want me to come any more, so I won't come. Then perhaps she will be pleased'. He doesn't work it out or reason it out; he just puts two and two together dog-wise. He's wrong from your viewpoint, but he's absolutely right from his. He needed to be praised for coming. If you can catch him as he chews the duck and give him a shake or a tap or a very harsh 'No, bad puppy' while he is doing wrong, you can teach him that that is wrong. Otherwise you must forget it.
If he comes to you of his own accord, praise him and welcome him every single time without exception, even if you are livid with rage because he was chasing a cat and you have yelled yourself hoarse. He has come now and now is all he knows.
If you are sitting quietly in the afternoon with you puppy and he decides he feels lonely and comes to you for petting, do not push him away, even if you are busy. Give him a little fussing, and then put him back in his bed if you have not the time for him. He will not mind that at all, as long as it is part of the pattern of his life and he always has a petting when he comes.

Make the most of every chance you get to call you puppy to you. 'Come' when you put his food down. 'Come' if you give him a biscuit. Once he has had his exercise and is safely clean (If he isn't, he will puddle in excitement), pick up his toy and say 'come', and have a few seconds play with him.
Call your puppy as much as possible to come to you. Always reward and pet your dog. This will reinforce his desire to come to you; it is fun.

Some years ago I met someone whose dog had walked out forever. I was told that the dog had a habit of running off, but they had taught it that was wrong and they did not know why it had not come back this time. How had they taught it not to run off? As soon as it came home, it was beaten with a riding whip and then locked in the shed for twenty-four hours without food. Would you go home if that happened when you got home? No wonder he ran off and never returned. He knew that to return meant a thrashing, hours without food, and a cold bed in a dark shed. So far as he knew, he was punished for coming home.
What should have happened was that the instant he arrived, he was petted, fussed, and given a good meal. That would make coming home well worthwhile, and be much more likely to stop him going off than would be punishing him.
The only time to punish a dog that is running away is while he is running away. I keep a soft potato in my pocket, and if a pup does fly off, throw that. It descents from heaven and puppy, hit by something from nowhere, rushes back to me for comfort. (It is not hard enough to hurt).
Teach it not to go out of the gate unless you are with him. When you open the gate; go outside with him and let him smell first. After a few seconds call him inside and leave the gate open. Watch him, if he goes out say 'no' and call him, pet him and say 'Good Dog'. If he does not go out while you are standing there, leave him in the garden and go inside the house, but watch him at all times. If he knows that you are watching he will most probably not go outside. If he goes outside without knowing that you are watching him, you must sneak up on him while he is outside the gate and chase him inside. When he is inside pet him and say 'Good Dog' and reassure him that he is OK inside. You will have to repeat this until he understands that you will hit him if he wanders outside without you in sight, and that he is a good dog if he is inside. If he does not go outside wait in the house for a while, go out and praise him for staying inside. Walk to the gate and call him and walk outside with him. He will then learn that he may go outside with you.

BARKING
Do not tolerate unnecessary barking. If he is telling you that somebody is approaching, tell him how good he is and distract him from the cause. If barking continues, then forceful action is required. Throwing him with a potato from nowhere helps.